Home » Posts tagged 'empathy and stress'
Tag Archives: empathy and stress
Empathy is good for your health and well-being: Empathy is on a short list of stress reduction practices including meditation (mindfulness), Tai Chi, and Yoga. Receiving empathy in the form of a gracious and generous listening is like getting a spa treatment for the soul. But do not settle for metaphors.
For evidence-based research on empathy, empathy and stress reduction, and empathy training you may start by googling: Antoni et al. 2011; Ciaramicoli 2016; Del Canale et al 2012; Farrow et al. 2007; Irwin et al. 2012; Maes 1995, 1999; Pollack et al. 2002; Rakel et al. 2009; Segerstrom and Miller 2004; Slavich et al. 2013 [this list is not complete].
You do not have to buy the book, Empathy Lessons, to get the research, but if you would like more detail see especially Chapters Four and Six in Empathy Lessons (click here to get book from Amazon).
[Also included are chapters on the Top 30 Tips and Techniques for Expanding Empathy, Overcoming Resistance to Empathy, Empathy Breakdowns, Empathy as the New Love, Empathy versus Bullying, and more.]
The healing powers of stress reduction are formidable. Expanding empathy reduces stress; and reducing stress expands empathy. A positive feedback loop is enacted. Expanding empathy expands well-being. Here empathy is both the end and the means.
A substantial body of evidence-based science indicates that empathy is good for a person’s health. This is not “breaking news” and was not just published yesterday. We don’t need more data, we need to start applying it: we need expanded empathy.
Evidence-based research demonstrates the correlation between health care providers who deliver empathy to their patients and favorable healthcare
outcomes. What is especially interesting is that some of these evidence-based studies specifically exclude psychiatric disorders and include mainline medical outcomes such as reduced cholesterol, improved type 2 diabetes, and improvement in related “life style” disorders.
Generalizing on this research, a small set of practices such as receiving empathy, meditation (mindfulness), yogic meditation, and Tai Chi, promote well-being by reducing inflammation. These practices are not reducible to empathy (or vice versa), but they all share a common factor: reduced inflammation. These anti-inflammatory interventions have been shown to make a difference in controlled experiments, evidence-based research, and peer-reviewed publications.
Using empathy in relating to people is a lot like using a parachute if you jump out of an airplane or getting a shot of penicillin if one has a bacterial infection. The evidence is overwhelming that such a practice is appropriate and useful in the vast majority of cases. The accumulated mass of decades of experience also counts as evidence in a strict sense. Any so-called hidden or confounding variables will be “washed out” by the massive amount of evidence that parachutes and penicillin produce the desired main effect.
Indeed it would be unethical to perform a double blind test of penicillin at this time, since if a person needed the drug and it were available it would be unethical not to give it to him. Yes, there are a few exceptions – some people are allergic to penicillin. But by far and in large, if you do not begin with empathy in relating to other people, you are headed for trouble.
Empathy is at the top of my list of stress reduction methods, but is not the only item on it. Empathy alongwith mindfulness (a form of meditation), Yoga, Tai Chi, spending time in a sensory deprivation tank (not otherwise discussed here), and certain naturally occurring steroids, need to be better known as interventions that reduce inflammation and restore homeostatic equilibrium to the body according to evidence based research.
Biology has got us humans in a bind, since the biology did not evolve at the same rate as our human social structures. When bacteria attack the human body, the body’s immune system mounts an inflammatory defense that sends macrophages to the site of the attack and causes “sickness behavior” in the person. The infected person takes to bed, sleeps either too much or too little, has no appetite (or too much appetite), experiences low energy, possibly has a fever, including the “blahs,” body aches, and flu-like symptoms. This response has evolved over millions of years, and is basically healthy as the body conserves its energy and fights off the infection using its natural immune response.
Now fast forward to modern times. This natural response did not envision the stresses of modern life back when we were short stature, proto-humanoids inhabiting the Serengeti Plain and defending ourselves against large predators. Basically, the body responds in the same way to the chronic stressors of modern life—the boss at work is a bully, the mortgage is over-due, the children are acting out, the spouse is having a midlife crisis—and the result is “sickness behavior”—many of the symptoms of which resemble clinical depression—but there is no infection, just inflammation.
The inflammation becomes chronic and the body loses its sensitivity to naturally occurring anti-inflammatory hormones, which would ordinarily kick in to “down regulate” the inflammation after a few days. Peer reviewed papers demonstrate that interventions such as empathy reduce biological markers of inflammation and restore equilibrium. This is also a metaphor. When an angry—“inflamed”—person is listened to empathically—is given a “good listening” as I like to say—the person frequently calms down and regains his equilibrium.
Empathy migrates onto the short list of inflammation reducing interventions. The compelling conclusion is that empathy is good for your well-being.
Bibliography, References, and Additional Reading
Adams, Tristam Vivian. (2016). The Psychopath Factory: How Capitalism Organises Empathy. London: Repeater Books.
Agosta, Lou. (1976). Intersecting languages in psychoanalysis and philosophy, International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, Vol. 5, 1976: 507–534.
____________. (1977). Empathy and Interpretation. Ph.D. Dissertation. Philosophy Department. University of Chicago.
____________. (1980). The recovery of feelings in a folktale, Journal of Religion and Health, Vol. 19, No. 4, Winter 1980: 287–297.
____________. (1984). Empathy and intersubjectivity in Empathy I, ed. J. Lichtenberg et al. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Press.
____________. (2010). Empathy in the Context of Philosophy. London: PalgraveMacmillan.
_____________. (2011). Empathy and sympathy in ethics, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, a peer reviewed online resource: www.iep.utm.edu/emp-symp/[checked 01/19/2018].
_____________. (2013). A rumor of empathy in psychology (the movie): http://empathyinthe contextofphilosophy.com/2013/04/28/a-rumor-of-empathy-in-psychology/ [checked 2018-01-20 (caution: an extract space may be inserted due to line break(s))].
____________. (2014). A Rumor of Empathy: Rewriting Empathy in the Context of Philosophy. New York: Palgrave Pivot.
____________. (2014a). A delicacy of empathy: The many meanings of ‘sympathy’ in Hume, Psicologia em Pesquisa, 8 (1): 3–14. DOI: 10.5327/Z1982-12472014000 10002.
_____________. (2014b). A rumor of empathy: Reconstructing Heidegger’s contribution to empathy and empathic clinical practice, Medicine, Healthcare, and Philosophy, 17 (2): 281–292. DOI: 10.1007/s11019-013-9506-0.
______________. (2015). A Rumor of Empathy: Resistance, Narrative, Recovery in Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy. London: Routledge.
____________ . (2016). Radio Empathy: Empathy: What It Is and Why It Is Important With David Howe: https://youtu.be/nUefHF2dt_Y [checked on 11/11/2017].
Angera, J. and E. Long. (2006). Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of an empathy training program for couples in marriage and romantic relationship. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 5(1): 1–26.
Antoni, M. H., Lutgendorf, S. K., Blomberg, B. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral stress management reverses anxiety-related leukocyte transcriptional dynamics, Biological Psychiatry, 2011, 15: 366–372.
Axelrod, David. (2015). Believer: My Forty Years in Politics. New York: Penguin Books.
Babiak, Paul and Robert D. Hare. (2006). Snakes in Suits: When Psychopaths Go To Work. New York: Harper Publishing.
Baron-Cohen, Simon. (1995). Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
______________________. (2011). The Science of Evil: On Empathy and the Origins of Cruelty. New York: Basic Books (Perseus).
Basch, Michael Franz. (1983). Empathic understanding: a review of the concept and some theoretical considerations, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, Vol. 31, No. 1: 101–126.
Batson, C. Daniel. (2012). The empathy-altruism hypothesis: Issues and implications in Jean Decety, ed. (2012). Empathy: From Bench to Bedside. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press: 41–54.
Battarbee, Katja and Jane Fulton Suri, and Suzanne Gibbs Howard. (2012). Empathy on the edge: Scaling and sustaining a human-centered approach in the evolving practice of design, IDEO: http://fliphtml5.com/gqbv/uknt/basic %5Bchecked on 11/31 /2017].
Bazelon, Emily. (2012). Sticks and Stones: Defeating the Culture of Bullying and Rediscovering the Power of Character and Empathy. New York: Random House.
Black, David S., Steve W. Cole, Michael R. Irwin, Elizabeth Breen, Natalie M. St. Cyr, Nora Nazarian, Dharma S. Khalsa, and Helen Lavretsky. (2013). Yogic meditation reverses NF-kB and IRF-related transcriptome dynamics in leukocytes of family dementia caregivers in a randomized controlled trial, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2013 March 38(3): 348–355.
Boyd, Robyn. (2008). Do people only use 10% of their brains? Scientific American, Feb. 8, 2008: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/do-people-only-use-10-percent-of-their-brains/ [checked on 12/14/2017].
Breggin, Peter R. (1991). Toxic Psychiatry: Why Therapy, Empathy, and Love Must Replace the Drugs, Electroshock, and Biochemical Theories of the ‘New Psychiatry.’ New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Brunero, Scott, Scott Lamont and Melissa Coates. (2010). A Review of empathy education in nursing, Nursing Inquiry: Vol. 17, No.1, March 2010: 65–74.
Canfield, Jack, Sally Burbank, Terri Elders, and Amy Newmark. (2003). Chicken Soup for the Soul. New York: Soul Publishing (Simon and Shuster).
Carnegie, Dale. (1936). How to Win Friends and Influence People. New York; Simon and Schuster, 1981.
Carruthers, Peter and Peter K. Smith, eds. (1996). Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Chiu, Tony, Ming Lam, Klodiana Kolomitro, and Flanny C. Alamparambil. (2011). Empathy training: Methods, evaluation practices, and validity, Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, Vol. 7, No. 16: 162–200.
Ciaramicoli, Arthur. (2016). The Stress Solution. Novato, CA: New World Library.
Cohen, Ted. (1999). Jokes: Philosophical Thoughts on Joking Matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Coke, Jay S., Gregory Batson, and Katherine McDavis. (1978). Empathic mediation of helping: A two-stage model, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology36(7):752–766. DOI: 10.1037/ 0022-3522.214.171.1242.
Davis, Mark H., Laura Conklin, Amy Smith, and Carol Luce. (1996). Effect of perspective taking on the cognitive representation of persons: A merging of self and other, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 70, No. 4, Apr 1996: 713–726.
Darwin, Charles. (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
Decety, Jean, ed. (2012). Empathy: From Bench to Bedside. Cambridge: MIT Press .
Decety, Jean and P.L. Jackson. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy, Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2004, 71–100.
Decety, Jean, Chenyi Chen, Carla Harenski, and Kent A. Kiehl. (2013). An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: Imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2013; 7: 489; published online 2013 September 24. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00489.
Dennett, Daniel. (1978). Beliefs about beliefs, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 568–570.
_________________. (1987). The Intentional Stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
de Waal, Frans B. M. (2009). The Age of Empathy. New York: Harmony Books (Random House).
Del Canale, Louis, V. Maio, X Wang, G Rossi, M. Hojat, and J.S. Gonnella. (2012). The relationship between physician empathy and disease complications: An empirical study of primary care physicians and their diabetic patients in Parma, Italy, Academic Medicine 2012, 87(9):1243–1249.
Dick, Philip K. (1968). Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? New York: Ballentine Books, 1981.
Doyle, Arthur Conan. (1890a). The Resident Patient in Sherlock Holmes: The Complete Novels and Stories: Volume I. New York: Bantam Books, 1986: 578–591.
__________________. (1890b). The Adventure of the Abbey Grange in Sherlock Holmes: The Complete Novels and Stories: Volume I. New York: Bantam Books, 1986: 881–890.
Dreger, Alice. (2016). Galileo’s Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and One Scholar’s Search for Social Justice. New York: Penguin Books.
Editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2013). Henry Havelock Ellis. Britannica On-Line: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Havelock-Ellis [checked on 11/-06/2017].
Ekman, Paul. (1985). Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Politics, and Marriage, New York, W.W. Norton; (2003); (2003).
__________. (2003). Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communi-cation and Emotional Life, New York: Henry Holt.
___________. (2008). Conversations With History: Paul Ekman. YouTube:
http://- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IA8nYZg4VnI %5Bchecked on 12/14/2017].
Ellenberger, Henri. (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
Ellis, Havelock. (1897/1915). Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Vol. II: Sexual Inversion, 3rd ed., Philadelphia, (1st Engl. ed., London, 1897).
Farrow, Tom and P. Woodruff, eds. (2007). Empathy and Mental Illness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Forster, Michael N. (2010), After Herder: Philosophy of Language in the German Tradition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Frank, Jerome D. and Julia B. Frank. (1961). Persuasion and Healing: A Comparative Study of Psychotherapy. 3rd ed. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1993.
Freud, S. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, XXIV Volumes. Translated under the guidance of James Strachey. Hereafter abbreviated as SE.
______. (1905). Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. SE, Vol. VII: 123–246.
______. (1912). On the universal tendency to debasement in the sphere of love (Contributions to the Psychology of Love II). SE, Vol. XI: 177–190.
______. (1912b). Recommendations to physicians practicing psycho-analysis: The dynamics of transference. SE, Vol. XII: 109–120.
______. (1913a). On beginning the treatment (further recommendations on the technique of psycho-analysis). SE, Vol. XII: 121–144.
______. (1913b). Zur Einleitung der Behandlung, Gesammelte Werke, VIII. London: Imago Press, 1955: 454–478.
Gallese, Vittorio. (2001). The ‘shared manifold’ hypothesis: From mirror neurons to empathy, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol. 8, No. 5-7, (2001): 30–50.
________________. (2007). The shared manifold hypothesis: Embodied simulation and its role in empathy and social cognition in Empathy and Mental Illness, eds. T. Farrow and P. Woodruff. UK, Cambridge University Press.
Gallese, Vittorio and Valentina Cuccio. (2015). The paradigmatic body: Embodied simulation, intersubjectivity, the bodily self, and language in Open MIND 14(T), T. Metzinger and J. M. Windt, eds. MIND Group. Frankfurt am Main: DOI: 10.15502/9783958570269.
Garbarino, James and Ellen deLara. (2002). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. New York: the Free Press (Simon and Shuster).
Gentry, William. (2016). Rewards multiply with workplace empathy, Businessolver: http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/brand-connect/businessolver/rewards-multiply-with-workplace-empathy/%5Bchecked 12/14/2017 ].
Gentry, William and Todd J. Weber, Golnaz Sadri. (2007). Empathy in the workplace: A tool for effective leadership, Washingtonpost.com: http:// http://www.ccl.org/wpcontent/uploads/ 2015/04/EmpathyInTheWorkplace.pdf [checked on 03/31/2017].
Gladwell, Malcolm. (2008). Outliers. New York: Little Brown.
Golan, Ofer and Simon Baron-Cohen. (2006). Systemizing empathy: Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia, Development and Psychopathology 18, 2006: 591–617. DOI: 10.10170S0954579406060305.
Goldberg, Arnold. (2011). The enduring presence of Heinz Kohut: empathy and its vicissitudes, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, Vol. 59, No. 2: 289–311.
Gordon, Mary. (2005). The Roots of Empathy: Changing the World Child by Child. New York/Toronto: The Experiment (Thomas Allen Publishers).
Grandin, Temple. (1995). Thinking in Pictures. New York: Viking Press, 2006.
Gregory, Richard. (1968). Visual illusions in Perception: Mechanisms and Models: Readings from Scientific American, eds. Richard Held and Whitman Richards. New York: W.H Freeman: 241–251.
Gropnik, Alison, Andrew Meltzhof, and Patricia Kuhl. (2000) The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us About the Mind. New York: William Morrow Paperback.
Hacking, Ian. (1995). Rewriting the Soul: Multiple Personality and the Sciences of Memory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
___________. (1999). The Social Construction of What? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hadwin, J., Simon Baron-Cohen, P. Howlin, and K. Hill. (1997). Does teaching theory of mind have an effect on the ability to develop conversation in children with autism? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27: 519–537. DOI:10.1023/A:1025826009731.
Halpern, Jodi. (2001). From Detached Concern to Empathy: Humanizing Medical Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harcourt, Bernard E. (2015). Exposed: Desire and Disobedience in the Digital Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Harley, Willard J. (nd). Marriage Builders: http://marriagebuilders.com/index.html [checked on 11/02/2017]
Harlow, Harry F. (1958). The nature of love, American Psychologist, 13, 673–685.
Hatfield, E., J. Cacioppo, and R. Rapson. (1994). Emotional Contagion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heidegger, Martin. (1927). Being and Time, trs. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson, New York: Harper Row, 1962. [Note: “H” refers to pagination in the original Niemeyer German edition.]
Hickok, Gregory. (2014). The Myth of Mirror Neurons. New York: W.W. Norton.
Hobson, Peter. (2002). The Cradle of Thought: Exploring the Origins of Thinking. New York: Macmillan.
____________. (2005). What puts the jointness into joint attention? in Joint Attention: Communication and Other Minds: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology, N. Eilan, C. Hoerl, T. McCormack, and J. Roessler, eds. Oxford: Clarendon Press: 185–204.
Hojat, Mohammadreza, M. J. Vergate, K. Maxwell, G. Brainard, S.K. Herrine, and G. A. Isenberg. (2009). The devil is in the third year: A longitudinal study of erosion of empathy in medical school, Academic Medicine 84 (9): 1182–1191.
____________________, Daniel Z. Louis, Fred W. Markham, Richard Wender, Carol Rabinowitz, and Joseph S. Gonnella. (2011), Physicians empathy and clinical outcomes for diabetic patients, Academic Medicine Mar, 86(3): 359–64. DOI: 10.1097ACM.0b013e3182086fe1
Howe, David. (2012). Empathy: What It Is and Why It Is Important. London: Palgrave.
Howick, Jeremy. (2011). The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
Iacoboni, M. (2005). Understanding others: Imitation, language, and empathy in Perspectives on Imitation: From Neuroscience to Social Science, eds. S. Hurly and N. Chater, Vol. 1: 76–100. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
_________. (2007). Existential empathy: The intimacy of self and other in Empathy and Mental Illness, eds. Tom Farrow and Peter Woodruff. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Irwin, Michael R. and Richard Olmstead. (2012). Mitigating cellular inflammation in older adults: A randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi Chih, American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2012 September, 20(9): 764–722.
Isaac, Mike and Scott Shane. (2017). Facebook’s Russia-linked ads came in many disguises, The New York Times, Oct 2, 2017: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/02/technology/face book-russia-ads-.html [checked on Oct 15, 2017].
Jackson, Philip L., Andrew N. Meltzoff, and Jean Decety. (2005). How do we perceive the pain of others? A window into the neural processes involved in empathy, Neuroimage 24 (2005): 771–779.
Kahneman, Daniel. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Kantor, Jodi and David Streitfeld. (2015). Inside Amazon: Wrestling big ideas in a bruising workplace: The company is conducting an experiment in how far it can push white-collar workers to get them to achieve its ever-expanding ambitions, The New York Times, August 15, 2015: https://nyti.ms/1TFqcOG [checked on 06/30/2017].
Katz, Jackson.(2013). Violence against women: It’s a men’s issue, YouTube: http://www.you tube.com/watch?v=KTvSfeCRxe8 [checked 01/23/2016].
Kaufman, David and Mark Milstein. (2013). Clinical Neurology for Psychiatrists, 7th ed. London: Elsevier.
Kohut, Heinz. (1959). Introspection, empathy, and psychoanalysis, The Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 7 (July 1959): 459–483.
___________. (1971). The Analysis of the Self. New York: International Universities Press. 1971.
___________. (1972). Thoughts on narcissism and narcissistic rage, Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 27: 360–400.
___________. (1977). The Restoration of the Self. International Universities Press. 1977.
___________. (1982). Introspection, empathy, and the semi-circle of mental health, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 63: 395–407.
___________. (1984). How Does Analysis Cure? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kramer, Peter. (1993). Listening to Prozac: The Landmark Book about Anti- depressants and the Remaking of the Self. Revised edition. New York: Penguin, 1997.
Krumie, Matt. (2016). Ten companies putting empathy into action, Cornerstone On Demand: https://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/rework/10-companies-putting -empathy-action [checked on 07/03/2017].
Krznaric, Roman. (2014). Empathy: Why It Matters, and How to Get It. New York: Perigree Book (Penguin).
Kundera, Milan. (1984). The Unbearable Lightness of Being, tr. Michael Henry Heim. New York: Harper Perennial.
Lear, Jonathan. (2006). Radical Hope: Ethics in the Face of Cultural Devastation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lerner, Claire and Rebecca Parlakian. (2016). How to help your child develop empathy, Zero to Three: Early Connections Last a Lifetime: https://www.zerotothree- .org/resources/5-how-to-help-your-child-develop-empathy [checked on 06/26/20 17].
Levine, Madeline. (2012). Teach Your Children Well: Why Values and Coping Skills Matter More than Grades, Trophies, or ‘Fat Envelopes’. New York: Harper Perennial.
Maes, M. (1995). Evidence for an immune response in major depression: A review and hypothesis, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmaclogy and Biological Psychiatry19: 11–38.
_______. (1999). Major depression and activation of the inflammatory response system, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 461: 25–46.
Mann, Thomas. (1902). Buddenbrooks, tr. H.T. Lowe-Porter. New York: Vintage Books, 1961.
_______________. (1912). Der Tod in Venedig in Der Tod in Venedig und Andere Erzaehlungen. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Bucherei.
______________. (1912a). Death in Venice, tr. Stanley Appelbaum. New York: Dover.
Marcopolos, Harry. (2010). No One Would Listen. New York: Wiley.
Marinoff, Lou. (2000). Plato, Not Prozac! New York: Quill.
McKee, Annie. (2016). If you can’t empathize with your employees, you’d better learn to, Harvard Business Review, November 16, 2016.
Milgram, Stanley. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Vol. 67, No. 4: 371–378. DOI:10.1037/h0040525.
Miller, Geoffrey. (2000). The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature. New York: Anchor Books (Random House).
Morrison, James. (2014). DSM-5 Made Easy: The Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis. New York: The Guilford Press.
National Geographic Staff. (2004). The Genographic Project, The National Geographic Society: https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com %5Bchecked 06/27/2017].
Nelson, Katherine, ed. (1989/2006). Narratives from the Crib. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Olden, Christine. (1953). On adult empathy with children, Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, Vol. 8 [annual]: 111–126.
Olweus, Dan. (1973/1993). Bullying in School: What We Know and What We Can Do. London: Wiley/Blackwell.
Ozcan, C. T., F. Oflaz, and B. Bakir. (2012). The effect of a structured empathy course on the students of a medical and a nursing school, International Nursing Review, Vol. 59, Issue 4, December 2012: 532–538. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2012.01019.x.
Pace, Thaddeus W.W., Lobsang Tenzin Negi, Daniel D. Adame, Steven P. Cole, Teresa I. Sivilli, Timothy D. Brown, Michael J. Issa, and Charles L. Raison. (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress, Psychoendocrinology, 2009, Jan: 34(1): 87–98.
Kathleen Parker. (2017). Welcome to the year of the groper, The Washington Post, November 17, 2017.
Parmar, Belinda. (2014), The Empathy Era: Woman, Business and the New Pathway to Profit, London: Lady Geek Press.
_________________. (2016). The most empathetic companies: 2016. Harvard Business Review, December 20, 2016: https://hbr.org/2016/12/the-most-and-least-empathetic-companies-2016 [checked on 06/30/2017].
Pavel, Thomas. (1985). Fictional Worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
PBS staff reporter. (2013). Using babies to decrease aggression and prevent bullying, PBS News Hour: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/using-babies-to-decrease-aggress- ion-prevent- bullying/ [checked 12/12/2017].
Pecukonis, E. V. (1990). A cognitive/affective empathy training program as a function of ego development in aggressive adolescent females, Adolescence, 25: 59–76.
Pigman, G.W. (1995). Freud and the history of empathy, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 76: 237–256.
Piper, Mary. (1994). Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls. New York: Ballentine.
Plato. (no date (nd)).). Apology in Plato: The Collected Dialogues, ed. Edith Hamilton, Princeton: Princeton University Press (Bollingen Series): 3–26.
_____. (nd). Symposium in Plato: The Collected Dialogues, ed. Edith Hamilton, Princeton: Princeton University Press (Bollingen Series): 526–574.
_____. (nd). Theaetetus in Plato: The Collected Dialogues, ed. Edith Hamilton, Princeton: Princeton University Press (Bollingen Series): 845–919.
Prum, Richard O. (2017). The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin’s Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World – and Us. New York: Doubleday.
Prinz, W. (1990). A common coding approach to perception and action in O. Neuman and W. Prinz, eds., Relationships between Perception and Action: Current Approaches. Berlin: Springer-Verlag: 167–201.
Pollak, Yehuda and Raz Yirmiya. (2002). Cytokine-induced changes in mood and behaviour: Implications for ‘depression due to a general medical condition’, immunotherapy and antidepressive treatment, International Journal of Neuropsycho- pharmacology, (2002), 5: 389–399. DOI: 10.1017/S1461145702003152.
Rakel, David P., Theresa J. Hoeft, Bruce P. Barrett, Betty A. Chewning, Benjamin M. Craig, and Min Niu. (2009). Practitioner empathy and the duration of the common cold, Family Medicine , Vol. 41(7): 494–501.
Rasmus, Daniel W. with Rob Salkowitz. (2009). Listening to the Future, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Press.
Riess, Helen. (2013). The power of empathy, TEDxMiddlebury: https://www.youtube .com /watch?v=baHrcC8B4WM [checked on 03/23/2017].
____________, John M. Kelley, Gordon Kraft-Todd, Lidia Schapira, and Joe Kossowsky. (2014). The influence of the patient-clinician relationship on healthcare outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, PLOS, Vol. 9, No. 4 | e94207: 1–7: https://doi.org/10. 1371/journal.pone.0094207.
____________, John M. Kelley, Robert W. Bailey, Emily J. Dunn and Margot Phillips. (2012). Empathy training for resident physicians: A randomized controlled trial of a neuroscience-informed curriculum, Journal General Internal Medicine, 2012 Oct; 27(10): 1280–1286. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-012-2063-z.
Rizzolatti, G. and M. Gentilucci. (1998). Motor and visual-motor functions of the premotor cortex in P. Rakic and W. Singer, eds., in Neurobiology of Neocortex. New York, Wiley.
Sandler, J. (1960). The background of safety, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 41: 352–356.
Satel, Sally and Scott O. Lilienfeld. (2013). Brainwashed: The Seductive Appeal of Mindless Neuroscience. New York: Basic Books (Perseus).
Segerstrom, Suzanne C. and Gregory E. Miller. (2004). Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry, Psychol Bulletin. 2004 July; 130(4): 601–630.
Selyuk, Alynia. (2017). Uber CEO apologizes over video of dispute with Uber driver. National Public Radio (NPR) All Things Considered: http://www.npr.org/2017/03/ 01/517988142/ uber-ceo-apologizes-over-video-of-dispute-with-driver [checked on 07/02/2017].
Slavich, George M. and Steven W. Cole. (2013). The emerging field of human social genomics, Clinical Psychol Science, 2013 Jul; 1(3): 331–348.
Spinelli, Ernesto. (2005). The Interpreted World: An Introduction to Phenomenological Psych- ology, 2nd Edition. London: Sage Publications.
______________. (2016). On existential therapy: A personal reflection on its defining features: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B 4rCuHpa5hE [checked on 12/10/2017].
Stolorow, Robert D. (2007). Trauma and Human Existence: Autobiographical, Psychoanalytic, and Philosophical Reflections. New York: Taylor and Francis.
________________. and George E. Atwood. (1992). Contexts of Being: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Life. New York: The Analytic Press (Taylor and Francis).
Therrien, Mark E. (1979). Evaluating empathy skill training for parents, Social Work, Vol. 24, No. 5 (Sep 1979): 417–19.
Titchener, Edward Bradford. (1909). Lectures on the Experimental Psychology of the Thought-Processes. New York: Macmillan.
Tomasello, Michael. (2014). A Natural History of Human Thinking. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tutu, Desmond. (1999). No Future Without Forgiveness. New York: Doubleday.
van der Kolk, Bessel. (2014). The Body Keeps the Score: Mind, Brain and Body in the Transformation of Trauma. New York: Penguin Books.
Von Bergen, Jr., C.W. and Robert E. Shealy. (1982). How’s your empathy? Training and Development Journal, November 1982: 22–28.
Vul, Edward, Christine Harris, Piotr Winkielman, and Harold Pashler. (2009). Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotions, personality, and social cognition, Perspective on Psychological Science, Vol.4, No. 3 (2009): 274–290.
Vygotsky, Lev S. (1934). Thought and Language, tr. E. Hanfmann and G. Vakar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1963.
Wikipedia Contributors. (no date (nd)). Barack Obama supreme court candidates, Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama_Supreme_Court_candidates [checked on 06/12/17].
Wimsatt, William C. (2007). Re-Engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. (1951). Philosophical Investigations, tr. E. Anscombe. London: Basil Blackwell, 1968.
Zaffron, Steve and Dave Logan. (2009). The Three Laws of Performance: Rewriting the Future of Your Organization and your Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Base.
Zaki, Jamil and Mina Ciskara. (2015). Addressing empathic failures, Current Directions in Psych-ological Science, December 2015, Vol. 24, No. 6: 471–476. DOI: 10.1177/0963721415599978.
Zaki, Jamil. (2016). Does empathy help or hinder moral action, The New York Times, December 29, 2016: http://tinyurl.com/gwmfpxp [checked on 01/06/20Zimbardo, Philip. G., C. Haney, W. C. Banks. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison, International Journal of Criminology and Penology, Vol. 1: 69–97.
(c) Lou Agosta, PhD and the Chicago Empathy Project